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recovering forgotten root password with NIM

A decision was made that the fastest way to answer the need for a new AIX host will be to re-purpose an existing dormant partition. After CPU and RAM quantities were set in its profile the partition was powered-on. The next came the discovery that the currently user root password does not work here …… With a working NIM server nothing seems to be a problem :-).

What follows documents the process which with help of a NIM server allow you to reset root password in AIX – it does not matter if this is a stand alone or a partition, the procedure remains the same.

Posted in Real life AIX.

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password grammar in LINUX – PAM style

In AIX to control password grammar (composition rules), expiration and all other not mentioned here “attributes”, both on a local or global scale is very easy. All is collected and ready to be manipulated to satisfy your fancy in a single file called user located in directory called /etc/security.

This file as many other files in AIX is based on stanzas. There is the default stanza where all attributes are set to their “default” values. This stanza is followed by any number of other stanzas, each representing a particular user whose password/login attributes differ from the ones set in the default stanza. It is nice and easy. Does it answer all needs in this area? Maybe not, most likely not. Is it dated solution? It could be. In my opinion it is clean and efficient and if anything else is called for in addition and above what this file provides, one has to remember that AIX has PAM,yes AIX supports PAM. Having said that, I admit that I have never used PAM with AIX and have no idea do what extend PAM is supported by this operating system. What PAM stands for? PAM is short for the Pluggable Authentication Modules.

Here comes LINUX. A few days ago, I started to think about RedHat – How to set a different set of password controls on a RedHat host with an configured and operational Active Directory authentication? What to do to apply a different set of password attributes for the local users? This post is a way to share with you what I have so far discovered. As always, let me know if you find an error, omission or a better solution to what I have shown here.

In RedHat to make sure that the local users (the ones present in the file /etc/passwd) are authenticating by the local means and not via AD or LDAP or something else you have to check the files inside directory called /etc/pam.d for the presence of the following entry:

account       sufficient             pam_localuser.so

On my host, these entry is present in a few files like fingerprint-auth, password-auth, password-auth-ac, smartcard-auth, system-auth – not all of them are actually needed as for example this host does not employ any finger print recognition device to authorize the login-in user. I think, that for most cases it is enough to have this entry in both files which names start with password.

Next comes the grammar. To make sure that the local users passwords are sufficiently strong and they contain the correct ratio of numerals/upper/lower/special characters and so forth we look into the same directory again, but now seeking a different PAM module. This time we look for a PAM module called pam_cracklib.so, which we find in the file called password-auth. For example the following entry:

password	required	pam_cracklib.so \
                    dcredit=-1 ucredit=-1 lcredit=-1 minlen=8

requires a password to contain at the minimum one (1) digit (dcredit), one (1) upper case (ucredit) character, one (1) lower case (lcredit) character and be not shorter than (minlen 8 characters. Not to mention that this module will automatically check the selected password against a dictionary an if it is found to be a word …. guess what? It will be refused and the user will have to specify to select a different one.

Now, what about the previous passwords? How to prevent their repetitive usage? First, verify that this file is present:

# ls -l /etc/security/opasswd
-rw-------. 1 root root 0 Apr  5  2012 /etc/security/opasswd

This file is the “keeper” of users previous passwords. The number of previous password per user stored inside this file is controlled by the value of the token called remember – thanks the developer for using meaningful terms!!!!!!!!!! The next line shows this setting in action (an excerpt form the file /etc/pam.d/password-auth).

password    sufficient    pam_unix.so \
                 sha512 shadow nullok try_first_pass use_authtok \
                 remember=4

On this host, user is not allowed to repeat any of his four last passwords. By the way, the maximum for remember is 400 (past passwords).

For now this is all I have, stay warm,

MarkD:-)

Posted in Linux.

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iptrace as a service

There are many tools for observing the activity, both normal and pathological,on the network. Some run under AIX, others run on dedicated hardware.
One tool that can be used to obtain a detailed, packet-by-packet description of the LAN activity generated by a workload is the combination of the iptrace daemon and the ipreport command. The iptrace daemon can only be started by root. By default, iptrace traces all packets.

An option (-a) allows exclusion of address resolution protocol (ARP) packets. Other options can narrow the scope of tracing to a particular source host (-s), destination host (-d), or protocol (-p). For more information, see AIX Commands Reference.

Because iptrace can consume significant amounts of processor time, you should be as specific as possible in describing the packets you want traced. Since iptrace is a daemon, it should be started with a startsrc command rather that directly from the command line. This makes it easier to control and shut down cleanly. A typical invocation would be:

 # startsrc -s iptrace -a "-a -i en0 /user/iptrace/log1" 

For more information on all the available options, read the iptrace manual page in the AIX documentation. This command starts the iptrace daemon with directions to trace all activity on the interface, en0, and place the trace data in /user/iptrace/log1.

To stop the daemon, use:

 # stopsrc -s iptrace 

If you hadn’t started it with startsrc, you would have to find its process ID with ps and kill it.

The ipreport command is a formatter for the log file. Its output is written to stdout. Options allow recognition and formatting of RPC packets (-r), identifying each packet with a number (-n), and prefixing each line with a 3-character string that identifies the protocol (-s). A typical ipreport command to format the log1 file just created (which is owned by root) would be:

 # ipreport -rns log1 > log1_formatted

This would result in a sequence of packet reports similar to the following example. The fields of most interest are: the source (SRC) and destination (DST) host address, both in dotted decimal and in ASCII; the IP packet length (ip_len); and the indication of the higher-level protocol in use (ip_p).

the ‘stuff” above is a quote from an old Bull (France) AIX manual.

To see how to start iptrace as a process follow to this post “iptrace on AIX host

Posted in Real life AIX.

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changing the value of GID – its consequences

Often during migration from a local to a global authentication mechanism system administrator discovers that the same user group has a different numerical GID on one or more hosts. To change it system administrator either edits the file /etc/group or he/she could executes the command called chgroup.
The results of this action are quickly apparent as immediately after such change every file object which belongs to the group will show instead of the group name its previous GID value.

Now, system administrator has to comb through the file systems looking for each file/directory showing the old GID and replace it with group name.

Another AIX administrator, before the change of the group GID may collect the /path/file_name of every file owned by the group in a text file (find / -group Group_Name -ls >> FileList.txt) and use its contents after the GID change as follows:

for myFile in `cat FileList.txt | awk '{print $11}'`
do
        chgrp GROUP_NAME $myFile
done

One may quickly find out that if there is a substantial amount of files to process and the length of the command arguments list (ncargs) is not adequate the AIX shell fill refuse to execute these directives responding with the messages of “Not enough memory to execute“.

Before you start looking into one of my earlier posts suggesting how to deal with such outcome, you could try to replace the for loop with its while equivalent.

cat FileList.txt | while read line
do
        myFile=`echo $line | awk '{print $11}'`
        chgrp GROUP_NAME $myFile
done

You might be surprised but this time it may work like a charm.

Before we call it a day, we have to remember that any user defined in /etc/passwd whose primary group GID was modified still shows the “old” GID! So any users whose primary group was the one you modified will not be allowed to login!
We could use vi to open the /etc/passwd file and execute (for example) %s/333/335/g. If we did just that, what would happened to the group with GID od 2333 that is also present in this file? Its GID equals now 2335 which is not what it should be, right? So the “proper” way to change GUID is to execute %s/:333:/:335:/g instead.
Finally, I was really surprised when I noticed that GID change “sometimes” remove the (primary group) from among the user attributes. If you do the lsuser -R files .... you may not find pgrp= in the output. Fortunately, the chuser -R files pgrp=......... resolves this one and everything is back to normal.

Posted in Real life AIX.

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login with no password LINUX style

Back in the September of the previous year, I put out a post with the procedure outlining the process of setting a password-less logins to other AIX hosts. This very procedure can also be applied to whatever OS it is as long as it supports ssh/ssl.

Today, I had to harvest CPU/RAM information from a large number of LINUX machines and I decided to use the same procedure – I will set one LINUX host so from it I will be able log-in with no password or execute a command also without being asked to authenticate. As I was happily getting started with my tasks, Mike the Red Fedora wearer (really he comes to the office wearing a red fedora) Swierczynski (“ski” for short) entered my cube and after a glance at my screen asked me if I am aware that LINUX has a better tool for the task at hand. What is it Mike?

“LINUX has a command called ssh-copy-id that works for LINIX to LINUX to AIX to SOLARIS, and which will/can set the whole environment so even if a target hosts does not have the .ssh setup in the user’s home directory this command will make sure this entities will be created and populated so the user will not be asked to authenticated at login or at the instant of a command executed remotely on his behalf and carried by SSH.”

In my case, to enable a passwordless root login from hostA to hostB, I executed the following command

# ssh-copy-id -i ~root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub rootB@host_name

Actually this command became a body of a for loop which was fed with host names from a file (some twenty or more) called hostsList.

hostA#  for host in `cat hostsList`; do ssh-copy-id -i .ssh/id_rsa.pub root@$host; done

I almost forgot, Mike also showed me the dmidcode which spits out page after page of info which usefulness I have yet to learn.

By the way, the id_rsa.pub file was created with the same command as in September:

# ssh-keygen -t rsa

a good day everybody
🙂

Posted in Linux, LINUX, Real life AIX.


terminating session from HMC command line

Today is the day, I decided to learn how to force to close a terminal session from HMC command line instead of going to HMC GUI to do that. I admit, it took me a while to reach this point, which as you must admit is a proof of how patient man MarkD:-) is ….. Well, on the other side, there could be at least one more meaning and explanation of this story, which I am not going to investigate at all.

So, here you are – you executed vtmenu, selected the right managed system followed with the appropriate partition number/name you want to log in, and instead of seeing the world famous AIX login prompt your HMC presents you the following:

 A terminal session is already open for this partition.
 Only one open session is allowed for a partition.
 Exiting....  Received end of file, Exiting.

You can free the offending terminal session executing the command rmvterm which must be provided with the managed system name and either the right partition name or its IDentification number.

hscroot@aixhmci14:~> vtmenu
 Retrieving name of managed system(s) . . .
 ----------------------------------------------------------
  Managed Systems:
 ----------------------------------------------------------
   1) 199.165.255.251
   2) EpicProd-9119-FHA-SN049F777

 Enter Number of Managed System.   (q to quit): 2

Now, we will see all partitions of the selected managed system.

 ----------------------------------------------------------
  Partitions On Managed System:  EpicProd-9119-FHA-SN049F777
  OS/400 Partitions not listed
 ----------------------------------------------------------
   1)    CLAORRPU001                          Running
   2)    EPCDBRPU011                          Running
   3)    EPCMDRDU011                          Running
   4)    EPCRVIOS1                            Running
   5)    EPCRVIOS2                            Running
   6)    EPCSHRPU011                          Running
   7)    EPCSHRPU022                          Running

To “free” the terminal session associated with lpar (partition) known as CLAORRPU001 we could do either one:

rmvterm -m EpicProd-9119-FHA-SN049777 -p CLAORRPU001

or

rmvterm -m EpicProd-9119-FHA-SN049777 --id 1

With the “other” terminal session terminated, there is nothing stopping you from opening a session for yourself.

Posted in Real life AIX.

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LINUX on WMware – network configuration

This post shows how to configure a LINUX host built from a VMware template. In this case the WWPN aka the MAC address is duplicated on each and every guest built from the template ….. This should not be allowed as it is against the whole idea of uniqueness of network adapters within the TCP/IP world.

One of the side effects of this “issue” is the presence of eth1 interface instead of eth0 in the guest inventory. What needs to be done is described next.

After the guest is powered you need to make a note of what WMware “thinks” is the MAC address of your guest. Highlight you guest, select the Summary tab, next in the Commands pane select the option labeled Edit Settings and finally select the Network Adapter and on the right side the screen in front of your eyes there is the Mac Address entry containing the value WMware manager assigned to the guest. Copy/Paste it, memorize it, write it down on a paper. Open a console session and log-in to the guest.

Remove the following file /etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules

Make sure that in the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts directory exists only one ifcfg-* file and that this file is called ifcfg-eth0. Now, edit this file by replacing the value to the right of HWADDR= with the MAC address you obtained a two or three sentences above. Is the guest ip address, netmask, gateway and so forth are correct? If the answer is YES, restart the network service – either reboot or execute the service network restart

This should be it.

Shop Amazon – Valentine’s Day Event

Posted in Linux, LINUX.

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comparing hosts performance

It is possible that in the past, this used to be a pure magic. Today, everybody can do it. What am I talking about? Contrary to the heading above this text, I am not talking about the citrus fruits but about comparing machines using their rPerf ratings (which are based on their processor architecture).

“The question: we have a guest in one of our p6 595’s and in another in one of our p770. How do they compare?”

To answer this question, we have to find the CPU frequency of both machines. How? The command prtconf is one of the possibilities. Next, we have to establish how many processors each of these two partitions have. Finally, we need to know the total number of active processors in machine one and machine two which when combined with their frequency allows us to extract/interpolate the appropriate rPerf (unit of AIX performance) value. This information can be obtain from two IBM documents which you can view/download following this link:

http://www-03.ibm.com/systems/power/hardware/reports/factsfeatures.html

Here is the short extract showing for a given processor frequency pairs representing rPerf value associated with the number of processors (shown in parenthesis).

p595 and p770 rPerf details

For example, a p595 with 16@5GHz CPUs is assigned a rPerf number equal to 164.67.

Our entire p7 has 32@4.2GHz CPUs, its rPerf value is calculated as follows:

478.9*32/36=425.69rPerf 

Its partition that we want to compare against a partition in p595 has 4 CPUs; its rPerf value equals:

425.69*4/32=53.21rPerf

The p595 with its 40@5GHz CPUs has rPerfs value of 368.82. Its partition with 10 CPUs has:

368.82*10/40=92.20rPerf

 

Assuming that my calculations are OK it looks that the old iron still has some muscle.:-)

A few days later:

If you are not mathematically incliened, follow this link to a script that does all these calculations for you. Download it and execute it on the appropriate machine – thanks Ku!

http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/wikis/display/wikiptype/rperf

Posted in Real life AIX.

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to the users of this blog


Unfortunately, there are some whose intentions are not noble and as the result I need to tighten security of this site.
Today, I had to delete all “wp-users” (subscribers) of this blog.

Posted in Real life AIX.


aix host memory and its usage

Today, Annwoy came to my cube with this little treasure – for you if you wonder how is your host memory used; if someone asks for what amount of the computational or non-computational memory is there? ……

#!/usr/bin/ksh
#memory calculator

um=`svmon -G | head -2|tail -1| awk {'print $3'}`
um=`expr $um / 256`
cm=`svmon -G | head -2|tail -1| awk {'print $6'}`
cm=`expr $cm / 256`
ncm=`expr $um - $cm`
tm=`lsattr -El sys0 -a realmem | awk {'print $2'}`
tm=`expr $tm / 1000`
fm=`expr $tm - $um`
echo "\n\n-----------------------";
echo "System : (`hostname`)";
echo "-----------------------\n\n";

echo "\n----------------------";
echo "Memory Information\n\n";
echo "total memory = $tm MB"
echo "free memory = $fm MB"
echo "used memory = $um MB"
echo "computational memory = $cm MB"
echo "non computational memory = $ncm MB"
echo "\n\n-----------------------\n";

This is a sample output:

-----------------------
System : (annwoy.edu)
---------------------
Memory Information

total memory = 67108 MB
free memory = 1622 MB
used memory = 65486 MB
computational memory = 17264 MB
non computational memory = 48222 MB
-----------------------

As I found out from Ramon, what takes a few lines of code can be accomplished with one command too – there is always more then one way to skin the AIX feline. 🙂

>svmon -G -O unit=MB
Unit: MB
---------------------------------------------------------------------
      size   inuse     free     pin     virtual  available   mmode
memory  57344.00  56289.60 1054.40  9235.80  22733.89 32762.27 Ded
pg space    4096.00        68.3

               work        pers        clnt       other
pin         7560.64           0        11.0     1664.19
in use     22733.89           0    33555.71

Posted in Real life AIX.

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